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Computer security , cybersecurity cyber security , or information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware , software , or electronic data , as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. The field has become of significance due to the expanded reliance on computer systems , the Internet ,  and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi , and due to the growth of “smart” devices , including smartphones , televisions , and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things IoT.
Cybersecurity is also one of the significant challenges in the contemporary world , due to the complexity of information systems , both in terms of political usage and technology. Its primary goal is to ensure the system’s dependability, integrity, and data privacy. Since the Internet ‘s arrival and with the digital transformation initiated in recent years, the notion of cybersecurity has become a familiar subject in both our professional and personal lives.
Cybersecurity and cyber threats have been consistently present for the last 50 years of technological change. In the s and s, computer security was mainly limited to academia until the conception of the Internet, where, with increased connectivity, computer viruses and network intrusions began to take off. After the spread of viruses in the s, the s marked the institutionalization [ clarification needed ] of cyber threats and cybersecurity.
The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference , and the later publication of the Ware Report , were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security. However, in the s and s there were no grave computer threats because computers and the internet were still developing, and security threats were easily identifiable.
Most often, threats came from malicious insiders who gained unauthorized access to sensitive documents and files. Although malware and network breaches existed during the early years, they did not use them for financial gain. By the second half of the s, established computer firms like IBM started offering commercial access control systems and computer security software products.
It started with Creeper in It is considered the first computer worm. In , the first anti-virus software was created, called Reaper. Between September and June , a group of German hackers performed the first documented case of cyber espionage. The group hacked into American defense contractors, universities, and military bases’ networks and sold gathered information to the Soviet KGB.
The group was led by Markus Hess , who was arrested on 29 June He was convicted of espionage along with two co-conspirators on 15 Feb In , one of the first computer worms, called the Morris worm , was distributed via the Internet.
It gained significant mainstream media attention. Netscape had SSL version 1. These weaknesses included replay attacks and a vulnerability that allowed hackers to alter unencrypted communications sent by users.
However, in February , Netscape launched the Version 2. Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action.
Collecting intelligence includes exploiting security flaws to extract information, which is an offensive action. Correcting security flaws makes the flaws unavailable for NSA exploitation.
The agency analyzes commonly used software in order to find security flaws, which it reserves for offensive purposes against competitors of the United States. The agency seldom takes defensive action by reporting the flaws to software producers so that they can eliminate them.
The offensive strategy worked for a while, but eventually other nations, including Russia , Iran , North Korea , and China , acquired their own offensive capability and have tended to use it against the United States. NSA contractors created and sold “click-and-shoot” attack tools to U. NSA’s employees and contractors have been recruited at high salaries by adversaries, anxious to compete in cyberwarfare.
For example, in , the United States and Israel began exploiting security flaws in the Microsoft Windows operating system to attack and damage equipment used in Iran to refine nuclear materials. Iran responded by heavily investing in their own cyberwarfare capability, which they began using against the United States. A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation, or internal control. Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database.
A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm , is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or poor configuration. They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability.
Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and backdoors are usually discovered by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of the operating system of the computer. Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. While a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult.
Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet or from a range of other possible techniques, including reflection and amplification attacks , where innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim.
An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software worms, keyloggers , covert listening devices or using wireless microphones. Even when the system is protected by standard security measures, these may be bypassed by booting another operating system or tool from a CD-ROM or other bootable media.
Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks. Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private computer “conversation” communication , typically between hosts on a network.
Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Surfacing in , a new class of multi-vector,  polymorphic  cyber threats combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread.
Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users. The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details and passwords.
This information can then be used to gain access to the individual’s real account on the real website. Preying on a victim’s trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering.
Attackers are using creative ways to gain access to real accounts. A common scam is for attackers to send fake electronic invoices  to individuals showing that they recently purchased music, apps, or others, and instructing them to click on a link if the purchases were not authorized.
Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become ” root ” and have full unrestricted access to a system. Reverse engineering is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, code, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Any computational system affects its environment in some form. This effect it has on its environment, includes a wide range of criteria, which can range from electromagnetic radiation, to residual effect on RAM cells which as a consequent make a Cold boot attack possible, to hardware implementation faults which allow for access and or guessing of other values that normally should be inaccessible.
In Side-channel attack scenarios the attacker would gather such information about a system or network to guess its internal state, and as a result access the information which is assumed by the victim to be secure. Social engineering , in the context of computer security, aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc.
A common scam involves emails sent to accounting and finance department personnel, impersonating their CEO and urgently requesting some action. In May , the Milwaukee Bucks NBA team was the victim of this type of cyber scam with a perpetrator impersonating the team’s president Peter Feigin , resulting in the handover of all the team’s employees’ W-2 tax forms.
Spoofing is an act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or username , in order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain. Tampering describes a malicious modification or alteration of data. So-called Evil Maid attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples.
Malicious software malware installed on a computer can leak any information, such as personal information, business information and passwords, can give control of the system to the attacker, and can corrupt or delete data permanently. Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations.
Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization.
Information security culture is the ” Andersson and Reimers found that employees often do not see themselves as part of their organization’s information security effort and often take actions that impede organizational changes. The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at risk.
The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U. Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains. Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks.
The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable.
In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies. The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked. The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life.
Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target. Smartphones , tablet computers , smart watches , and other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.
WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach.
The increasing number of home automation devices such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets. Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches.
Examples include the loss of millions of clients’ credit card details by Home Depot ,  Staples ,  Target Corporation ,  and the most recent breach of Equifax.
Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale. Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm’s CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group,   and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.
Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise control , anti-lock brakes , seat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network.
All of these systems carry some security risk, and such issues have gained wide attention. Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector,  and the car’s onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping.
However, if access is gained to a car’s internal controller area network , the danger is much greater  — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch. Manufacturers are reacting in numerous ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security fixes “over the air” into its cars’ computer systems.
Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists    and foreign powers. The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics , software , sensors , and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.
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