Download Free trial – Apple iWork ’09 install file – What is a KEY file?
4 ways to edit the read-only PDF files | Computerworld.iWork ’09 – Apple Community
Step 1-Download and install the iWork 09 trial. Step 2-Launch Pages, Numbers and Keynote, and then quit each program. Step 3-Open the Mac. In fact you’ll be have iWork for mac free download, full version again, not the trial one. However, we’ll have to start with the iWork Apple iWork (Mac). , downloads Updated: February 22, Trial.
Directory List Medium | PDF | Internet | World Wide Web.Apple iWork ’09 (Mac) – Download
Spreadsheets have replaced paper-based systems throughout the business world. Although they were first developed for accounting or bookkeeping tasks, they now are used extensively in any context where tabular lists are built, sorted, and shared. LANPAR, available in ,  was the first electronic spreadsheet on mainframe and time sharing computers. Lotus was the leading spreadsheet when DOS was the dominant operating system.
A spreadsheet consists of a table of cells arranged into rows and columns and referred to by the X and Y locations. X locations, the columns, are normally represented by letters, “A,” “B,” “C,” etc. A single cell can be referred to by addressing its row and column, “C10”. Additionally, spreadsheets have the concept of a range , a group of cells, normally contiguous. For instance, one can refer to the first ten cells in the first column with the range “A1:A10”.
In modern spreadsheet applications, several spreadsheets, often known as worksheets or simply sheets , are gathered together to form a workbook. A workbook is physically represented by a file containing all the data for the book, the sheets, and the cells with the sheets. Worksheets are normally represented by tabs that flip between pages, each one containing one of the sheets, although Numbers changes this model significantly.
Cells in a multi-sheet book add the sheet name to their reference, for instance, “Sheet 1! Some systems extend this syntax to allow cell references to different workbooks. Users interact with sheets primarily through the cells. A given cell can hold data by simply entering it in, or a formula, which is normally created by preceding the text with an equals sign.
Data might include the string of text hello world , the number 5 or the date Dec This may lead to confusion in some cases. The key feature of spreadsheets is the ability for a formula to refer to the contents of other cells, which may, in turn, be the result of a formula.
To make such a formula, one replaces a number with a cell reference. If C10 holds the value 3 the result will be But C10 might also hold its formula referring to other cells, and so on.
The ability to chain formulas together is what gives a spreadsheet its power. Many problems can be broken down into a series of individual mathematical steps, and these can be assigned to individual formulas in cells. Some of these formulas can apply to ranges as well, like the SUM function that adds up all the numbers within a range.
Spreadsheets share many principles and traits of databases , but spreadsheets and databases are not the same things. A spreadsheet is essentially just one table, whereas a database is a collection of many tables with machine-readable semantic relationships.
While it is true that a workbook that contains three sheets is indeed a file containing multiple tables that can interact with each other, it lacks the relational structure of a database.
Spreadsheets and databases are interoperable—sheets can be imported into databases to become tables within them, and database queries can be exported into spreadsheets for further analysis. A spreadsheet program is one of the main components of an office productivity suite , which usually also contains a word processor , a presentation program , and a database management system.
Programs within a suite use similar commands for similar functions. Usually, sharing data between the components is easier than with a non-integrated collection of functionally equivalent programs.
This was particularly an advantage at a time when many personal computer systems used text-mode displays and commands instead of a graphical user interface.
The word “spreadsheet” came from “spread” in its sense of a newspaper or magazine item text or graphics that covers two facing pages, extending across the centerfold and treating the two pages as one large page. The compound word ‘spread-sheet’ came to mean the format used to present book-keeping ledgers —with columns for categories of expenditures across the top, invoices listed down the left margin, and the amount of each payment in the cell where its row and column intersect—which were, traditionally, a “spread” across facing pages of a bound ledger book for keeping accounting records or on oversized sheets of paper termed ‘analysis paper’ ruled into rows and columns in that format and approximately twice as wide as ordinary paper.
A batch “spreadsheet” is indistinguishable from a batch compiler with added input data, producing an output report, i. However, this concept of an electronic spreadsheet was outlined in the paper “Budgeting Models and System Simulation” by Richard Mattessich.
These batch Spreadsheets dealt primarily with the addition or subtraction of entire columns or rows of input variables , rather than individual cells. Brian Walsh at Marquette University , Wisconsin.
This program was written in Fortran. Primitive timesharing was available on those machines. It was used to assist in the teaching of finance to business students. Students were able to take information prepared by the professor and manipulate it to represent it and show ratios etc.
In , a book entitled Business Computer Language was written by Kimball, Stoffells and Walsh and both the book and program were copyrighted in and years later that copyright was renewed. In the late s, Xerox used BCL to develop a more sophisticated version for their timesharing system.
A key invention in the development of electronic spreadsheets was made by Rene K. Pardo and Remy Landau, who filed in U. Patent 4,, on a spreadsheet automatic natural order calculation algorithm. While the patent was initially rejected by the patent office as being a purely mathematical invention, following 12 years of appeals, Pardo and Landau won a landmark court case at the Predecessor Court of the Federal Circuit CCPA , overturning the Patent Office in — establishing that “something does not cease to become patentable merely because the point of novelty is in an algorithm.
Pardo and Landau developed and implemented the software in Once the cell values stayed constant, the user was assured that there were no remaining forward references within the spreadsheet. In , three former employees from the General Electric computer company headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona set out to start their own software development house. Leroy Ellison, Harry N. Cantrell, and Russell E. Edwards found themselves doing a large number of calculations when making tables for the business plans that they were presenting to venture capitalists.
They decided to save themselves a lot of effort and wrote a computer program that produced their tables for them. This program, originally conceived as a simple utility for their personal use, would turn out to be the first software product offered by the company that would become known as Capex Corporation.
A major application was opinion research tabulation. The user-defined the names and labels for the rows and columns, then the formulas that defined each row or column. In , Autotab-II was advertised as extending the original to a maximum of ” 1, rows and columns, combined in any proportion the user requires It was implemented by IBM in at least 30 countries.
It ran on an IBM mainframe and was among the first applications for financial planning developed with APL that completely hid the programming language from the end-user. Through IBM’s VM operating system , it was among the first programs to auto-update each copy of the application as new versions were released. Users could specify simple mathematical relationships between rows and between columns.
Compared to any contemporary alternatives, it could support very large spreadsheets. It loaded actual financial planning data drawn from the legacy batch system into each user’s spreadsheet monthly.
It was designed to optimize the power of APL through object kernels, increasing program efficiency by as much as 50 fold over traditional programming approaches. APLDOT was dubbed a “spreadsheet” because financial analysts and strategic planners used it to solve the same problems they addressed with paper spreadsheet pads.
Bricklin has spoken of watching his university professor create a table of calculation results on a blackboard. When the professor found an error, he had to tediously erase and rewrite several sequential entries in the table, triggering Bricklin to think that he could replicate the process on a computer, using the blackboard as the model to view results of underlying formulas.
His idea became VisiCalc, the first application that turned the personal computer from a hobby for computer enthusiasts into a business tool. VisiCalc went on to become the first ” killer application “,   an application that was so compelling, people would buy a particular computer just to use it. VisiCalc was in no small part responsible for the Apple II ‘s success. The acceptance of the IBM PC following its introduction in August , began slowly because most of the programs available for it were translations from other computer models.
Things changed dramatically with the introduction of Lotus in November , and release for sale in January Lotus , along with its competitor Borland Quattro , soon displaced VisiCalc. Lotus was released on January 26, , started outselling then-most-popular VisiCalc the very same year, and for several years was the leading spreadsheet for DOS.
Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Macintosh on September 30, , and then ported  it to Windows, with the first version being numbered 2. The Windows 3. By the time Lotus responded with usable Windows products, Microsoft had begun to assemble their Office suite.
By , Excel was the market leader, edging out Lotus ,  and in , IBM discontinued Lotus altogether. Several companies have attempted to break into the spreadsheet market with programs based on very different paradigms.
Lotus introduced what is likely the most successful example, Lotus Improv , which saw some commercial success, notably in the financial world where its powerful data mining capabilities remain well respected to this day. Spreadsheet attempted to dramatically simplify formula construction, but was generally not successful.
The main concepts are those of a grid of cells , called a sheet, with either raw data, called values, or formulas in the cells. Formulas say how to mechanically compute new values from existing values. Values are general numbers, but can also be pure text, dates, months, etc. Extensions of these concepts include logical spreadsheets. Various tools for programming sheets, visualizing data, remotely connecting sheets, displaying cells’ dependencies, etc.
A “cell” can be thought of as a box for holding data. A single cell is usually referenced by its column and row C2 would represent the cell containing the value 30 in the example table below.
Usually rows, representing the dependent variables , are referenced in decimal notation starting from 1, while columns representing the independent variables use adic bijective numeration using the letters A-Z as numerals. Its physical size can usually be tailored to its content by dragging its height or width at box intersections or for entire columns or rows by dragging the column- or row-headers. An array of cells is called a sheet or worksheet.
It is analogous to an array of variables in a conventional computer program although certain unchanging values, once entered, could be considered, by the same analogy, constants. In most implementations, many worksheets may be located within a single spreadsheet.
A worksheet is simply a subset of the spreadsheet divided for the sake of clarity. Functionally, the spreadsheet operates as a whole and all cells operate as global variables within the spreadsheet each variable having ‘read’ access only except its containing cell. A cell may contain a value or a formula , or it may simply be left empty. A value can be entered from the computer keyboard by directly typing into the cell itself.
Alternatively, a value can be based on a formula see below , which might perform a calculation, display the current date or time, or retrieve external data such as a stock quote or a database value.
Computer scientist Alan Kay used the term value rule to summarize a spreadsheet’s operation: a cell’s value relies solely on the formula the user has typed into the cell. There are no ‘side effects’ to calculating a formula: the only output is to display the calculated result inside its occupying cell.
There is no natural mechanism for permanently modifying the contents of a cell unless the user manually modifies the cell’s contents. In the context of programming languages, this yields a limited form of first-order functional programming. A standard of spreadsheets since the s, this optional feature eliminates the need to manually request the spreadsheet program to recalculate values nowadays typically the default option unless specifically ‘switched off’ for large spreadsheets, usually to improve performance.
Some earlier spreadsheets required a manual request to recalculate since the recalculation of large or complex spreadsheets often reduced data entry speed. Many modern spreadsheets still retain this option.
Recalculation generally requires that there are no circular dependencies in a spreadsheet. A dependency graph is a graph that has a vertex for each object to be updated, and an edge connecting two objects whenever one of them needs to be updated earlier than the other.
Dependency graphs without circular dependencies form directed acyclic graphs , representations of partial orderings in this case, across a spreadsheet that can be relied upon to give a definite result. This feature refers to updating a cell’s contents periodically with a value from an external source—such as a cell in a “remote” spreadsheet. For shared, Web-based spreadsheets, it applies to “immediately” updating cells another user has updated.
All dependent cells must be updated also. Once entered, selected cells or the entire spreadsheet can optionally be “locked” to prevent accidental overwriting. Even though individual cells are marked as locked, the spreadsheet data are not protected until the feature is activated in the file preferences. A cell or range can optionally be defined to specify how the value is displayed.
The cell contents are not changed by this format, only the displayed value. Some cell formats such as “numeric” or “currency” can also specify the number of decimal places. This can allow invalid operations such as doing multiplication on a cell containing a date , resulting in illogical results without an appropriate warning.
Depending on the capability of the spreadsheet application, each cell like its counterpart the “style” in a word processor can be separately formatted using the attributes of either the content point size, color, bold or italic or the cell border thickness, background shading, color.
To aid the readability of a spreadsheet, cell formatting may be conditionally applied to data; for example, a negative number may be displayed in red. A cell’s formatting does not typically affect its content and depending on how cells are referenced or copied to other worksheets or applications, the formatting may not be carried with the content.
In most implementations, a cell, or group of cells in a column or row, can be “named” enabling the user to refer to those cells by a name rather than by a grid reference.
Names must be unique within the spreadsheet, but when using multiple sheets in a spreadsheet file, an identically named cell range on each sheet can be used if it is distinguished by adding the sheet name. One reason for this usage is for creating or running macros that repeat a command across many sheets.
Another reason is that formulas with named variables are readily checked against the algebra they are intended to implement they resemble Fortran expressions. The use of named variables and named functions also makes the spreadsheet structure more transparent. In place of a named cell, an alternative approach is to use a cell or grid reference. Most cell references indicate another cell in the same spreadsheet, but a cell reference can also refer to a cell in a different sheet within the same spreadsheet, or depending on the implementation to a cell in another spreadsheet entirely, or a value from a remote application.
A typical cell reference in “A1” style consists of one or two case-insensitive letters to identify the column if there are up to columns: A—Z and AA—IV followed by a row number e. The alternative “R1C1” reference style consists of the letter R, the row number, the letter C, and the column number; relative row or column numbers are indicated by enclosing the number in square brackets.
Most current spreadsheets use the A1 style, some providing the R1C1 style as a compatibility option. When the computer calculates a formula in one cell to update the displayed value of that cell, cell reference s in that cell, naming some other cell s , causes the computer to fetch the value of the named cell s.
Some spreadsheet implementations in Excel allow cell references to another spreadsheet not the currently open and active file on the same computer or a local network. It may also refer to a cell in another open and active spreadsheet on the same computer or network that is defined as shareable. These references contain the complete filename, such as:.
In a spreadsheet, references to cells automatically update when new rows or columns are inserted or deleted. Care must be taken, however, when adding a row immediately before a set of column totals to ensure that the totals reflect the values of the additional rows—which they often do not.
A circular reference occurs when the formula in one cell refers—directly, or indirectly through a chain of cell references—to another cell that refers back to the first cell. Many common errors cause circular references. However, some valid techniques use circular references. These techniques, after many spreadsheet recalculations, usually converge on the correct values for those cells. Likewise, instead of using a named range of cells, a range reference can be used.
Reference to a range of cells is typical of the form A1:A6 , which specifies all the cells in the range A1 through to A6. In the earliest spreadsheets, cells were a simple two-dimensional grid. Over time, the model has expanded to include a third dimension, and in some cases a series of named grids, called sheets. The most advanced examples allow inversion and rotation operations which can slice and project the data set in various ways.
Apple Music subscribers can create a profile to share their music with friends and follow other users to view the music they’re listening to on a regular basis. Additionally, the service is heavily integrated into Apple’s own in-house services such as their personal voice assistant Siri as well as their audio and video streaming protocol AirPlay.
As of late , users also have the ability to access the full version of Apple Music through an Apple-designed web player in beta. The “Library” tab shows the user’s music collection, with options to view songs by “Playlists”, “Artists”, “Albums”, “Songs”, or “Downloaded Music”. Below these options, the tab also shows music recently added to the user’s library. The “Listen Now” tab recommends music for the user based on their music tastes. Human expert selections supplement the algorithmic curation, while users are able to “Like” and “Dislike” songs to further improve music suggestions.
The “Radio” tab incorporates Apple Music Radio and other radio stations which play genre-specific or artist-related music, depending on the user’s preference. Unlike traditional radio services, the radio feature in Apple Music allows users to skip songs, view previously played songs on the station, as well as view songs playing next. The “Search” tab features a search box where users can search for artists, albums, Apple Music users, or songs by name or by lyrics.
When a song is playing, a “Now Playing” bar appears above the bottom navigation bar. When viewed, the Now Playing section allows users to add a song to their library, download it to their device, and like or dislike the song to improve suggestions on the “Listen Now” tab.
Other functions of the “Now Playing” section include the ability to control what music plays next and put songs on shuffle or repeat. Additionally, users can view live lyrics of the song they are listening to through the now playing card, which displays the song’s lyrics live in sync with the time while it plays to the user.
Each artist page includes a profile banner and a “Play” button which automatically creates a radio station based around the artist. Artist pages also include sections for their featured releases, albums, singles, top songs, and background information. Apple Music users can create their own profile on the service, thus allowing them to follow other users and see what music their followers are listening to.
Users also have the ability to view their most played songs, artists, and albums of the entire year through a feature called Apple Music Replay, accessible on the “Listen Now” tab. The service is compatible with iOS devices running version 8. For devices without a native application, Apple Music is available on the web with a web player in beta.
Before Apple Music, the company’s iPod and iTunes were known for having “revolutionized digital music. After a period of rumors and anticipation, Sony Music CEO Doug Morris confirmed on June 7, , that Apple had plans to announce a music streaming service, saying “It’s happening tomorrow,”  with the launch later in the month.
And they have million credit cards in iTunes. Morris further argued that “Apple will promote this like crazy and I think that will have a halo effect on the streaming business. A rising tide will lift all boats.
It’s the beginning of an amazing moment for our industry. Shortly before Apple Music was released, singer-songwriter Taylor Swift wrote an open letter publicly criticizing Apple’s decision to not reimburse artists during a user’s free trial period and announced that she would be holding back her album from the service. She said the policy was “unfair” as “Apple Music will not be paying writers, producers, or artists for those months”.
The day after Swift’s letter, Apple’s Senior Vice President of Internet Software and Services Eddy Cue announced on Twitter that Apple had changed its policy, and that Apple Music “will pay artist for streaming, even during customer’s free trial period”. And happily so”. She concluded saying it was “the first time it’s felt right in my gut to stream my album”. In negotiations with record labels for the new service, Apple allegedly attempted to encourage record labels to pull their content from the free, ad-supported tiers of competing services such as Spotify and Amazon Music in order to drive adoption of Apple Music and offered an incentive to Universal Music Group to pull its content from YouTube.
The U. Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission launched an investigation into this alleged cartel in May The announcement happened as the signature ” one more thing Apple Music launched on June 30, , in countries. Earlier, new users used to receive a three-month free trial subscription, which changed to a monthly fee after three months. The trial lasts for a month now. Apple TV and Android device support was planned for a “fall” launch.
The student plan was initially only available for eligible students in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand,  but was expanded to an additional 25 countries in November In February , Music Business Worldwide reported that, with Apple Music having launched in Turkey and Taiwan in the previous week, the service was available in countries.
The publication further wrote that those countries accounted for 59 regions that competing service Spotify did not. On April 21, , Apple announced that Apple Music would be expanding to an additional 52 countries around the world bringing the total to worldwide. In January , Fortune reported that, six months after launching, Apple Music had reached 10 million paying subscribers, having spent six months reaching the same customer base that took competing music streaming service Spotify six years.
Dre would be starring in and executive producing a “dark semi-autobiographical drama” called Vital Signs. The production was described as “Apple’s first scripted television series”. Dre’s production was an effort to “extend Apple Music” in promotional ways rather than Apple actively exploring original television content.
Citing Apple’s deals with Drake and Swift in October and December , respectively, the report referenced a Twitter user describing Apple’s efforts as “content marketing”. In January , The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was exploring original video content, including its own television series and movies. The two have jointly held the title of “President” at Sony, and have helped develop shows including Breaking Bad and Shark Tank. The hiring was noted by the media as another significant effort by Apple to expand into original video productions.
Apple Music TV plans on having premieres of new music videos occur every Friday at 12PM ET, as well as occasional artist and themed takeovers, airings of Apple Music original documentaries and films, live events and shows, and chart countdowns. The service launched with a countdown of the most streamed songs in the US of all time on Apple Music. In November , Apple launched the Android version of Apple Music, touted by reporters as Apple’s first “real” or “user-centric” Android app.
On December 13, , Apple discontinued Apple Music’s “Connect” feature in favor for their redesigned approach to artist profiles and the ability for users to share their music and playlists with friends and followers introduced in iOS On September 5, , Apple released the first version of an Apple Music web player in beta. The web player gives users full access to their music libraries along with similar features from the Apple Music app, while it is missing key features that are expected to be added later.
On November 15, , Apple released a new Apple Music feature called Apple Music Replay, which is a year-end playlist showing users their favorite tracks of the entire year, a feature similar to that of Spotify’s called Spotify Wrapped.
On November 20, , Apple announced the Apple Music catalog now hosts over 60 million songs. On November 20, , Apple introduced Apple Music for Business, offering customized playlists for partnered retailers. On December 28, , Apple Music upgraded its entire catalogue of 90 million tracks to have lossless audio.
As of July 31, , Apple Music has announced 4 live concerts. Similar price increases also occurred to student plans in the U. Apple Music received mixed reviews at launch. Among the criticism, reviewers wrote that the user interface was “not intuitive”,  and an “embarrassing and confusing mess”. Christina Warren of Mashable noted the emphasis on human curation in Apple Music, pointing out the various human-curated radio stations and the accuracy of the curated playlists recommended to users in the “For Me” section.
The author concluded saying “[The] For Me section alone has made me excited about music for the first time in a long time. Apple Music’s major redesign in iOS 10 received more positive reviews. Caitlin McGarry of Macworld praised Apple for having “cleaned up the clutter, reconsidered the navigation tools, put your library front and center, and added algorithmically created playlists to rival Spotify ‘s.
The music service added more needless options, key actions like repeat got buried, and the For You section leaves a lot to be desired”. In December , singer-songwriter Neil Young released a new archive as part of his Neil Young Archives project and criticized Apple for the audio quality offered by its Apple Music streaming service, stating: “Apple Music controls the audio quality that is served to the masses and chooses to not make high quality available, reducing audio quality to between 5 percent and 20 percent of the master I made in the studio in all cases.
So, the people hear 5 percent to 20 percent of what I created. Apple not offering a top-quality tier has led labels to stop making quality products available to the masses”. The implementation of iCloud Music Library caused significant issues for users. There were reports about music libraries being impacted by issues such as tracks moved to other albums, album art not matching the music, duplicate artists  and songs, missing tracks, and synchronization problems. The new technology also removed DRM from downloaded matched songs.
The decision was made by Ocean independently, without Def Jam Recordings , his former label, being a part of the deal. The exclusive deal reportedly “ignited a music streaming war”. Artists want as many fans as possible to hear their music, and fans want to be able to hear whatever they’re excited about or interested in — exclusives get in the way of that for both sides.
Of course, we understand that short promotional exclusives are common and we don’t have an absolute policy against them, but we definitely think the best practice for everybody is wide release”.
We’ll still do some stuff with the occasional artist. The labels don’t seem to like it and ultimately it’s their content. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Music streaming service by Apple Inc. This article is about the Apple streaming service. For the media player app from Apple, see Music software.
For the unrelated record label, see Apple Records. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December Apple Music Vice Media. Apple Music Fulwell 73 Productions. Aftermath Entertainment Apple Music Prettybird. Matty Healy , Zane Lowe.
Joseph Adenuga. Harry Styles , Paul Dugdale. Daniel Kaufman. Chris Perkel . Retrieved November 22, All in One Place”. Apple Newsroom. Apple Inc. June 8, Retrieved June 8, The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 11, Retrieved January 21, Retrieved November 20, June 24, Retrieved February 1, Fast Company. Retrieved November 23, October 27, Retrieved November 6, Retrieved April 22, Business Insider.
Retrieved October 10, The Wall Street Journal. Axel Springer SE. Eldridge Industries. Rolling Stone. The Guardian. Atlantic Media.
Entertainment Weekly. March 6, Retrieved May 6, Ars Technica. Indian Express. Retrieved February 6, The Leaf Label. Retrieved June 25, Music Business Worldwide. Retrieved April 21, June 13, CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 7,
How to download the complete Apple iWork suite for free on your Mac | iSource
As we all know that PDF is the best format for viewing and sharing documents, it is widely used by computer users. The following 4 ways can help you edit PDF files:. Recently Gmail added a solution may solve this problem.
At this stage, you can edit your read-only PDF file in Word. Now there are about websites provide online PDF to Word conversion service for free. You need to upload the PDF file and enter your email address. Then the converted word file would be sent to your mailbox after several minutes.
You can edit the word document after conversion. This is a kind of software specially designed for converting PDF to word. A good PDF to Word converter supports conversion of single file, batch files, and also selected pages.
It helps users preserve the original layout of text, graphics and images after conversion. Many users complain that use the Adobe Acrobat make their computer run slow and it eat up a lot of disk space when the file saved. More information about edit PDF you may go to www. Here are the latest Insider stories. More Insider Sign Out. Sign In Register. Sign Out Sign In Register. Latest Insider. Check out the latest Insider stories here.
More from the Foundry Network. Review: Apple’s iWork ’09 gets online sharing, ‘evolutionary’ updates. Acrobat and its alternatives: 4 ways to edit PDFs. A configuration tweak for the Foxit Reader. Creating an e-book: Tips on formatting and converting your document. The following 4 ways can help you edit PDF files: 1. Edit PDF through Gmail. Related: Enterprise Applications.